Define abetting


Diff between space and place botswana

diff between space and place botswana

A first exploration of the data on samples assigned to a category according to their position in space, revealed the presence of groupings (Fig. In the context of death, people shape forms of community and difference - along lines of ethnicity, class, religion, gender and kinship -. Bot swana means "place of Tswana" in the dominant national language (Set in the traditional households among the different ethnic groups in Botswana. CRYPTO CHALLENGE APP

This process was largely complete by , and thus the Bushmen, the Kalanga, the Bakgalagadi, and other current minorities were subjugated by the Batswana. In a coalition of Tswana chiefdoms led by Sechele I defeated Afrikaner incursions at the Battle of Dimawe and, after about eight years of intermittent tensions and hostilities, eventually came to a peace agreement in Potchefstroom in From that point on, the modern-day border between South Africa and Botswana was agreed on, and the Afrikaners and Batswana traded and worked together comparatively peacefully.

This blow to the larger invading Ndebele force signalled the start of the collapse of the Ndebele Kingdom in Zimbabwe and helped galvanise Tswana speaking authority of the area now making part of northern Botswana. Taking advantage of this were Christian missionaries. The Lutherans and the London Missionary Society both became established in the country by By every major village had a resident missionary, and their influence slowly became felt. Khama III reigned — was the first of the Tswana chiefs to make Christianity a state religion and changed a great deal of Tswana customary law as a result.

Christianity became the de facto official religion in all the chiefdoms by World War I. During the Berlin Conference , Britain decided to annex Botswana in order to safeguard the Road to the North and thus connect the Cape Colony to its territories further north.

It unilaterally annexed Tswana territories in January and then sent the Warren Expedition north to consolidate control over the area and convince the chiefs to accept British overrule. Despite their misgivings, they eventually acquiesced to this fait accompli. During the s the new territory was divided into eight different reserves, with fairly small amounts of land being left as freehold for white settlers.

This plan, which was well on its way to fruition despite the entreaties of Tswana leaders who toured England in protest, was eventually foiled by the failure of the Jameson Raid in January However, the UK began to consult with their inhabitants as to their wishes. Although successive South African governments sought to have the territories transferred to their jurisdiction, the UK kept delaying; subsequently, it never occurred.

The election of the Nationalist government in , which instituted apartheid , and South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth in , ended any prospect of the UK or these territories agreeing to incorporation into South Africa. A European-African advisory council was formed in , and the constitution established a consultative legislative council. An independence conference was held in London in February Based on the constitution, the country held its first general elections under universal suffrage and gained independence on 30 September The presidency passed to the sitting vice-president, Quett Masire , who was elected in his own right in and re-elected in and Masire retired from office in He was succeeded by Festus Mogae , who was elected in his own right in and re-elected in The presidency passed in to Ian Khama son of the first president , who had been serving as Mogae's vice-president since resigning his position in as Commander of the Botswana Defence Force to take up this civilian role.

He represents the Botswana Democratic Party , which has also won a majority in every parliamentary election since independence. All the previous presidents have also represented the same party. Finally, some efforts have been made in Botswana to integrate community voices in research and health policy processes. For example, the Ministry of Health and Wellnesses has emphasized the importance of social accountability mechanisms and people-centered services in its recent National Guideline for Implementation of Integrated Community-Based Health Services It has introduced community advisory boards in many health Districts and has required inclusion of community representatives on IRBs in the country, including the National Health Research Development Committee HRDC the body that oversees all health-related research in the country.

While these procedural developments are important, they could be even further enhanced by attempts to identify and describe substantive values and practices that are perceived to be important among diverse groups of community members in the country. This study seeks to identify cultural traditions and mores in Botswana that are relevant to research, in part, to support community-oriented ethical conduct of research.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study conducted with members of communities in Botswana to understand local community values, beliefs and practices that relate to research ethics, and explore how to facilitate incorporation of such views into research ethics policy processes. METHODS Research design This study adopted a qualitative approach, employing a multiple case study design to explore local community values, norms, and beliefs within real-life context Yin, and to allow analysis of data within and across different study communities Baxter, Data were collected through focus group discussions involving two different ethnic communities in Botswana, and through in-depth interviews with a single paramount chief from each.

Description of study participants and sampling To ensure some representation of both predominant Setswana and non-Tswana speaking tribal groups, this study sampled one ethnic community group from the nine Tswana speaking groups, and one from the seven non-Tswana speaking groups in the country. The two groups were the predominant Setswana-speaking Bakwena ethnic group from Molepolole, situated in the Southern part of Botswana population of 67, , and the predominant non-Tswana speaking Bakalaka ethnic group from Masunga, situated in the North Eastern part of the country population of 5, Statistics Botswana, Ethnic community groups are led by paramount chiefs viewed as the main custodians of cultural norms and traditions.

A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit the two paramount chiefs of the selected ethnic community groups to participate in semi-structured in-depth interviews. We also sought to identify four groups of village representatives for focus group discussions. A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit groups of headmen from each village for participation in discussions. Headmen helped to identify initial contacts within each of the three other study groups, who were then contacted for further snowball sampling within each group.

This approach facilitated recruitment for groups of elderly persons, traditional healers, and young adults. Each groups discussion was homogenous according to the sampled community role. See figure 1 for depiction of study participant groups according to data collection methods.

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Place as a noun: Numerically, the column counting a certain quantity. Examples: "That's what I said in the first place! Place as a verb transitive : To put an object or person in a specific location. Examples: "He placed the glass on the table.

To finish second, especially of horses or dogs. Examples: "The Cowboys placed third in the league. Examples: "I've seen him before, but I can't quite place where. Examples: "Run Ragged was placed fourth in the race. Place as a verb transitive : To arrange for or to make a bet. Examples: "I placed ten dollars on the Lakers beating the Bulls. Examples: "They phoned hoping to place her in the management team. Space as a noun: Of time.

Free time; leisure, opportunity. A specific specified period of time. An undefined period of time without qualifier, especially a short period ; a while. Space as a noun: Unlimited or generalized physical extent. Distance between things. Physical extent across two or three dimensions; area, volume sometimes or to do something. Physical extent in all directions, seen as an attribute of the universe now usually considered as a part of space-time , or a mathematical model of this.

The near-vacuum in which planets, stars and other celestial objects are situated; the universe beyond the earth's atmosphere. The physical and psychological area one needs within which to live or operate; personal freedom. Space as a noun: A bounded or specific physical extent. Space is an outcome of the hard and continuous work of building up and maintaining collectives by bringing different things into alignments. What is social space community?

A social space is physical or virtual space such as a social center, online social media, or other gathering place where people gather and interact. Some social spaces such as town squares or parks are public places; others such as pubs, websites, or shopping malls are privately owned and regulated.

What is social space in geography? Social space as the area inhabited by a group. In the sense coined by Durkheim, social space is the. What are the 4 types of space? Interpersonal distance. Hall described the interpersonal distances of humans the relative distances between people in four distinct zones: 1 intimate space, 2 personal space, 3 social space, and 4 public space.

What does space smell like? Astronaut Thomas Jones said it carries a distinct odor of ozone, a faint acrid smella little like gunpowder, sulfurous. A gentleman named Don Pettit was a bit more verbose on the topic: Each time, when I … Why is it called space?

The English word space originates from Latin word for expanse — spatium also written spacium in Medieval Latin , and later French word espace , through the use of which English variant space was formed. What is the example of region? The definition of a region is a specific area. The area in your body that is close to your stomach is an example of your stomach region. The state of California is an example of a state that would be described as being in the Western region of the United States.

Where do we use in on at? Moving to shorter, more specific periods of time, we use on to talk about particular days, dates, and holidays. For the most specific times, and for holidays without the word day, we use at. Where do we use has and have? While the verb to have has many different meanings, its primary meaning is to possess, own, hold for use, or contain.

Have and has indicate possession in the present tense describing events that are currently happening. Have is used with the pronouns I, you, we, and they, while has is used with he, she, and it. What are the two types of space? There are two types of space: positive space and negative space.

Where does space start? Krmn line The Krmn line, an altitude of km 62 mi above sea level, is conventionally used as the start of outer space in space treaties and for aerospace records keeping. The framework for international space law was established by the Outer Space Treaty, which entered into force on 10 October What is space answer?

Is time a human concept? Inevitably, some have concluded that time is simply a human construct. Can time be stopped? The simple answer is, Yes, it is possible to stop time. All you need to do is travel at light speed. The practice is, admittedly, a bit more difficult. What is the best definition of time?

Is time the 4th dimension? Time is the fourth dimension. So to know where you are, you have to know what time it is. Is time the same in space? We all measure our experience in space-time differently.

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Difference between Space and Place

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